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The thyroid is a small gland that lies in the neck about the level of the Adam’s apple and weighs approximately one ounce. It produces thyroid hormone and calcitonin. The parathyroid glands are very small and lie on the outside portion of the thyroid gland and secrete parathyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone ignites your metabolism so you can burn fat and produce energy. We will be focusing on thyroid hormone.
The thyroid gland is stimulated to make thyroid hormone by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) which is produced in the pituitary gland located in the brain. The pituitary is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain which monitors the amount of circulating thyroid hormone. Iodine must enter the thyroid gland through a transport system that is repaired with the intake of vitamin C. There is usually about 20-30 mg of iodine in the body and 75 percent of it is stored in the thyroid. In addition to iodine, iron, tyrosine, selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin D, magnesium, zinc, copper, and vitamins B2, B3, and B6 are required for thyroid hormone production.